The MPEG-2 Systems Standard specifies two methods for multiplexing the audio, video and other data into a format suitable for transmission and storage, namely the program stream and the transport stream. The Program Stream is designed for applications where errors are unlikely. It contains audio, video and data bitstreams (also called elementary bitstreams) all merged into a single bitstream. The program stream, as well as each of the elementary bitstreams, may be a fixed or variable bit rate. The Transport Stream, using fixed-size packets of 188 bytes, is designed for applications where data loss is likely. Also containing audio, video and data bitstreams all merged into a single bitstream, multiple programs can be carried.
MPEG-DASH is the first adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution that is an international standard. MPEG-DASH should not be confused with a transport protocol — the transport protocol that MPEG-DASH uses is TCP. Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH), also known as MPEG-DASH, is an adaptive bitrate streaming technique that enables high quality streaming of media content over the Internet delivered from conventional HTTP web servers. Similar to Apple's HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) solution, MPEG-DASH works by breaking the content into a sequence of small HTTP-based file segments, each segment containing a short interval of playback time of content that is potentially many hours in duration, such as a movie or the live broadcast of a sports event. MPEG-DASH uses existing HTTP web server infrastructure that is used for delivery of essentially all World Wide Web content.